10+ Essential Hadoop Infrastructure Components

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The Apache Ambari project is aimed at making Hadoop management simpler by developing software for provisioning, managing, and monitoring Apache Hadoop clusters. Ambari provides an intuitive, easy-to-use Hadoop management web UI backed by its RESTful APIs.

Ambari enables System Administrators to:

  • Provision a Hadoop Cluster
  • Ambari provides a step-by-step wizard for installing Hadoop services across any number of hosts.
  • Ambari handles configuration of Hadoop services for the cluster.

Manage a Hadoop Cluster

  • Ambari provides central management for starting, stopping, and reconfiguring Hadoop services across the entire cluster.

Monitor a Hadoop Cluster

  • Ambari provides a dashboard for monitoring health and status of the Hadoop cluster.
  • Ambari leverages Ambari Metrics System for metrics collection.
  • Ambari leverages Ambari Alert Framework for system alerting and will notify you when your attention is needed (e.g., a node goes down, remaining disk space is low, etc).

Ambari enables Application Developers and System Integrators to easily integrate Hadoop provisioning, management, and monitoring capabilities to their own applications with the Ambari REST APIs.

Apache Avro is a data serialization system. Avro provides rich data structures,a compact, fast, binary data format, a container file, to store persistent data, remote procedure call (RPC), simple integration with dynamic languages. Code generation is not required to read or write data files nor to use or implement RPC protocols. Code generation as an optional optimization, only worth implementing for statically typed languages.

Flume is a distributed, reliable, and available service for efficiently collecting, aggregating, and moving large amounts of log data. It has a simple and flexible architecture based on streaming data flows. It is robust and fault tolerant with tunable reliability mechanisms and many failover and recovery mechanisms. It uses a simple extensible data model that allows for online analytic application.

The GIS Tools for Hadoop toolkit allows you to leverage the Hadoop framework to complete spatial analysis on spatial data; for example:

  • Run a filter and aggregate operations on billions of spatial data records based on location.
  • Define new areas represented as polygons, and run a point in polygon analysis on billions of spatial data records inside Hadoop.
  • Visualize analysis results on a map and apply informative symbology.
  • Integrate your maps in reports, or publish them as map applications online.

Apache HBase is an open-source, distributed, versioned, non-relational database modeled after Google’s Bigtable: A Distributed Storage System for Structured Data by Chang et al. Just as Bigtable leverages the distributed data storage provided by the Google File System, Apache HBase provides Bigtable-like capabilities on top of Hadoop and HDFS.
Features:

  • Linear and modular scalability.
  • Strictly consistent reads and writes.
  • Automatic and configurable sharding of tables
  • Automatic failover support between RegionServers.
  • Convenient base classes for backing Hadoop MapReduce jobs with Apache HBase tables.
  • Easy to use Java API for client access.
  • Block cache and Bloom Filters for real-time queries.
  • Query predicate push down via server side Filters
  • Thrift gateway and a REST-ful Web service that supports XML, Protobuf, and binary data encoding options
  • Extensible jruby-based (JIRB) shell
  • Support for exporting metrics via the Hadoop metrics subsystem to files or Ganglia; or via JMX

The Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) is a distributed file system designed to run on commodity hardware. It has many similarities with existing distributed file systems. However, the differences from other distributed file systems are significant. HDFS is highly fault-tolerant and is designed to be deployed on low-cost hardware. HDFS provides high throughput access to application data and is suitable for applications that have large data sets. HDFS relaxes a few POSIX requirements to enable streaming access to file system data. HDFS was originally built as infrastructure for the Apache Nutch web search engine project. HDFS is now an Apache Hadoop subproject.

The Apache Hive data warehouse software facilitates querying and managing large datasets residing in distributed storage. Hive provides a mechanism to project structure onto this data and query the data using a SQL-like language called HiveQL. At the same time this language also allows traditional map/reduce programmers to plug in their custom mappers and reducers when it is inconvenient or inefficient to express this logic in HiveQL.

The Apache Lucene project develops open-source search software, including:

  • Lucene Core, the flagship sub-project, provides Java-based indexing and search technology, as well as spellchecking, hit highlighting and advanced analysis/tokenization capabilities.
  • SolrTM is a high performance search server built using Lucene Core, with XML/HTTP and JSON/Python/Ruby APIs, hit highlighting, faceted search, caching, replication, and a web admin interface.
  • Open Relevance Project is a subproject with the aim of collecting and distributing free materials for relevance testing and performance.
  • PyLucene is a Python port of the Core project.

The Apache Mahout project’s goal is to build an environment for quickly creating scalable performant machine learning applications. Apache Mahout introduces a new math environment we call Samsara, for its theme of universal renewal. It reflects a fundamental rethinking of how scalable machine learning algorithms are built and customized. Mahout-Samsara is here to help people create their own math while providing some off-the-shelf algorithm implementations. At its core are general linear algebra and statistical operations along with the data structures to support them. You can use is as a library or customize it in Scala with Mahout-specific extensions that look something like R. Mahout-Samsara comes with an interactive shell that runs distributed operations on a Spark cluster. This make prototyping or task submission much easier and allows users to customize algorithms with a whole new degree of freedom.

Oozie is a workflow scheduler system to manage Apache Hadoop jobs. Workflow jobs are Directed Acyclical Graphs (DAGs) of actions. Oozie Coordinator jobs are recurrent Oozie Workflow jobs triggered by time (frequency) and data availabilty. Oozie is integrated with the rest of the Hadoop stack supporting several types of Hadoop jobs out of the box (such as Java map-reduce, Streaming map-reduce, Pig, Hive, Sqoop and Distcp) as well as system specific jobs (such as Java programs and shell scripts). Oozie is a scalable, reliable and extensible system.

Apache Pig is a platform for analyzing large data sets that consists of a high-level language for expressing data analysis programs, coupled with infrastructure for evaluating these programs. The salient property of Pig programs is that their structure is amenable to substantial parallelization, which in turns enables them to handle very large data sets.

At the present time, Pig’s infrastructure layer consists of a compiler that produces sequences of Map-Reduce programs, for which large-scale parallel implementations already exist (e.g., the Hadoop subproject). Pig’s language layer currently consists of a textual language called Pig Latin, which has the following key properties – Ease of programming. It is trivial to achieve parallel execution of simple, “embarrassingly parallel” data analysis tasks. Complex tasks comprised of multiple interrelated data transformations are explicitly encoded as data flow sequences, making them easy to write, understand, and maintain.

Optimization opportunities. The way in which tasks are encoded permits the system to optimize their execution automatically, allowing the user to focus on semantics rather than efficiency.

Extensibility. Users can create their own functions to do special-purpose processing.

Apache Spark is a fast and general engine for large-scale data processing. It runs programs up to 100x faster than Hadoop MapReduce in memory, or 10x faster on disk. Spark has an advanced DAG execution engine that supports cyclic data flow and in-memory computing. Write applications quickly in Java, Scala or Python. Spark offers over 80 high-level operators that make it easy to build parallel apps. And you can use it interactively from the Scala and Python shells. Combine SQL, streaming, and complex analytics. Spark powers a stack of high-level tools including Spark SQL, MLlib for machine learning, GraphX, and Spark Streaming. You can combine these libraries seamlessly in the same application. You can run Spark using its standalone cluster mode, on EC2, on Hadoop YARN, or on Apache Mesos. Access data in HDFS, Cassandra, HBase, Hive, Tachyon, and any Hadoop data source.

Apache Sqoop is a tool designed for efficiently transferring bulk data between Apache Hadoop and structured datastores such as relational databases.

ZooKeeper is a centralized service for maintaining configuration information, naming, providing distributed synchronization, and providing group services. All of these kinds of services are used in some form or another by distributed applications. Each time they are implemented there is a lot of work that goes into fixing the bugs and race conditions that are inevitable. Because of the difficulty of implementing these kinds of services, applications initially usually skimp on them ,which make them brittle in the presence of change and difficult to manage. Even when done correctly, different implementations of these services lead to management complexity when the applications are deployed.